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To prove that the protocol used to make the claim that Oxybenzone kills coral larvae by solubilizing Oxybenzone into DMSO had design flaws to intentionally to kill the coral larvae.
Sample of 99.9% pure DMSO
Sample of 100% Oxybenzone
Lab beakers (4)
Weigh scale Accurate +/- 0.001 grams
To verify the affects of 99.9% Pure DMSO on seawater we placed 9 grams of 99.9% Pure DMSO into a clean dry beaker, (Beaker #1). We then placed 9 grams of seawater into a clean dry beaker, and added the 9 grams of Pure DMSO to the beaker,(Beaker #2). Note: No white particulates nor clouding, solution remained clear. See Photo below marked Control Photo.
Temperature of the 99.9% Pure DMSO was 20.2°C and pH 12.45.
Temperature of the seawater was 20.2°C and pH 8.25.
After the addition of the 9 grams of 99.9% Pure DMSO to the 9 grams of seawater the temperature instantaneously rose to 44°C (111.2°F) with pH 12.4.
This was an immediate 46 % increase in temperature and a 33.3% increase in pH.
Step #1 Purpose
To establish baseline standard appearance of Oxybenzone in seawater and Oxybenzone in DMSO.
Step #1 Procedure
Calibrate scale, place each beaker on scale and tare.
Place 9 grams seawater into Beaker #1, the add 1 gram Oxybenzone (yellow powder). No mixing, went right into DMSO.
Place 9 grams DMSO 99.9% into Beaker #2, then add 1 gram Oxybenzone. No mixing required.
Step #1 Observation
- DMSO has a very rank odor. So bad that you can see why it would never be used in any type of sunscreen product.
- As you can see from the picture below, Photo #1, Beaker #2, the DMSO had no problem with immediately solubilizing 100% of the Oxybenzone. No oxybenzone sediment remained.
- This was no surprise as DMSO is the best known solubilizer in the world.
- However, as you can see, the Oxybenzone when added to seawater just laid on top. Oxybenzone is an oil soluble material. Upon time, oxybenzone will wet out and sink to bottom, but will not dissolve. Please see Photo #1, Beaker #1.
Step #2 Purpose
To view the reaction of the DMSO/Oxybenzone solution (Beaker #2) above added to seawater in Beaker #2 below.
Step #2 Procedure
Place enough seawater, approximately 9 grams into a clean beaker to cover the bottom of the beaker, then add the solution in Beaker #2, Photo #1 above containing 9 grams DMSO and 1 gram Oxybenzone to the 5 grams of seawater, shown in Beaker#2, Photo #2 below.
The DMSO/Oxybenzone solution immediately had an adverse reaction to the seawater. The solution immediately kicked out a white particulate which adhered to sides of the beaker, and throughout the solution thus, significantly clouding the solution. See Photo #2 Beaker # 2 below.
Step #3 Purpose Petri Dish
To view the reaction of the DMSO/Oxybenzone solution Beaker #2 above added to seawater in a petri dish with more surface area, Photo #3 below.
Step #3 Procedure Petri Dish
Weigh out enough seawater to cover the bottom of a petri dish, then add the DMSO/Oxybenzone solution containing 9 grams DMSO and 1 gram Oxybenzone to the seawater in the petri dish.
Step#3 Observation Petri Dish
The DMSO/Oxybenzone solution immediately had an adverse reaction to the seawater the same as in the beaker, however it was even more visible due to the larger surface area. The solution immediately kicked out a white particulate, which adhered to the sides of the petri dish, and throughout the solution; as well as, significantly clouded up the solution. In addition, the Oxybenzone powder(yellow) could be seen kicking out of the solution, and floating to the top of the seawater.
After recording the reaction, we covered the petri dish with the petri dish cover, and within seconds condensation formed inside the cover. Upon further inspection, using a digital probe thermometer, we found that there had been an exothermic reaction, and the temperature had risen significantly.
Step #4 Purpose
To determine and record changes to temperature and pH after DMSO/Oxybenzone solution was added to the seawater.
Step #4 Procedure
Reset up the test exactly the same as in Step #1, this time measuring the temperature of the seawater, 20.1°C (68.18°F) and pH 8.27 in the petri dish prior to the addition of DMSO/Oxybenzone solution.
Next, we added the DMSO/Oxybenzone solution. No mixing required as reaction was immediate.
Place thermometer probe into the petri dish, and record temperature, then record pH.
The DMSO/Oxybenzone solution temperature was 20.1°C(68.18°F) with a pH 10.53.
Upon addition of the Oxybenzone/DMSO solution to seawater we found that the temperature instantaneously rose and stabilized at 36°C (96.8°F) with a pH 7.11. See photo #3 above.
That is an increase of 44.17% in temperature, and increase of 22.54% increase in ph.
One more interesting observation we noted when cleaning up after our experiment was the significant residue remaining in the petri dish and beakers.
Optimal Coral water temperature range: 23 -29°C (73 -84°F)
Acceptable pH for coral survival : 7.8 - 8.5 *Normal seawater pH 8.2, with ocean acidification it varies.
Coral require water current, circulation and flow.
FDA limits Oxybenzone to 6.0% in sunscreens. Oxybenzone is oil soluble and is typically incorporated into the oil phase of a sunscreen emulsion.
By artificially solubilizing the Oxybenzone into another chemical, DMSO, that is neither FDA approved, nor utilized in sunscreens created a vehicle allowing the coral larvae to absorb the solution into its system. While also creating an exothermic reaction with an immediate 44.17% increase in temperature high enough to contribute to the death of the coral larvae. In addition, the pH acidification with the pH dropping from 8.27 in the petri dish to an immediate pH of 7.11, a drop of 14.1%, would also contribute to the coral larvae death.
Another possible contribution to the death of the coral larvae would be the siltation and cloudiness that occurred in the seawater with the DMSO/Oxybenzone solution, not a realistic scenario for introduction of any sunscreen into our ocean environment.
In its natural commercialized state the oxybenzone would just stay on the outside of the coral larvae.
Imagine coral larvae, adult coral, sea-life or even marine micro-organisms trying to breathe in the solution when added to the seawater. Add to that no current or flow, which is vital to all coral.
Science is not real when you force the outcome by creating unrealistic protocols. The experiment conducted by this scientist was just as corrupt as the scientist in 2008, which was equivalent to tossing coral frags into a plastic bag of seawater, adding copious amounts of sunscreen chemicals, sitting it on a shelf, and stating the coral frags died.
When we washed the petri dish and beaker, the residual particulates disintegrated our sponge. See images Photo #4 Petri Dish residual & Photo #5 sponge disintegration. Envision what these reactions did to a delicate coral larvae.
It’s not just about the ingredients – It’s about how the ingredients are formulated and processed!
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